Hexavalent Chromium

Treatment for Hexavalent Chromium

In water, chromium is found in two (2) predominant valence states: trivalent chromium (CR(III)) and hexavalent chromium (CR(VI)). Trivalent chromium is naturally occurring and the most stable of the two forms, being an essential nutrient for humans and animals, with a relatively low toxicity. Hexavalent chromium (VI) may occur in chromium ore deposits or from industrial activity.

Total chromium is regulated by US EPA at an MCL of 100µg/l. The State of California set limits for total chromium at 50 µg/l and for chromium (VI) at 10 µg/l. All other states follow US EPA MCL standards.

Chromium (III) is susceptible to oxidation to chromium (VI) in water systems with the use of disinfection oxidants like chlorine, potassium permanganate and chloramines. Therefore, in California waters both chromium (VI) and chromium (III) levels should be monitored in a drinking water system so as to gauge the full chromium (VI) potential content.


Hexavalent Chromium

Tonka Water Hexavalent Chromium Removal Technologies

Tonka Water offers pilot testing to optimize an existing plant or to assist in the design of a new plant.  


Tonka Water’s strong base anion exchange process, the Chrome-IX™ system, for chromium removal is the most efficient process for chromium removal. Chrome-IX™ captures hexavalent chromium, converts it to non-hazardous trivalent chromium where it is removed and safely disposed via a specialized chelating resin. With Chrome-IX™ no hazardous waste is generated and infrequent regenerations are the norm. Tonka Water will select the resin with Chrome-IX™and our method of regenerant recycling saves thousands of dollars over the life of the facility.

Contact us with your water treatment needs

Each plant has different design parameters involving various chemical feed systems with variations in detention times and filtration media. Because each hexavalent chromium situation is unique, we offer pilot testing to optimize an existing plant or to assist in the design of a new plant. Call your Tonka Water Representative for more information on hexavalent chromium removal or any other water treatment needs.

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