Radium contamination of groundwater is generally attributed to natural sources. Dissolved radium is found in many rock formations that affect drinking water. The areas where radium is present in public water supplies include the Midwestern US and the East Coast.
Typical radium removals of over 90% are achieved with proper HMO pretreatment. As an added benefit, high percentages of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are usually removed as well.
The Ra-Mox™ system can be integrated into many existing water treatment facilities. The value-added Simul-Wash™ backwash system can be incorporated into either gravity or pressure treatment systems. This unique backwash system uses air and water simultaneously, at subfluidized rates, to provide the most effective means of backwashing granular filter media.
Radium is a divalent cation alkaline earth metal (as are calcium and magnesium). As such, radium behaves very much as calcium and magnesium do in water. Lime softening, ion exchange and reverse osmosis have all been identified as approved processes for radium removal. Unless softening is also a treatment goal for the water utility, these processes can be costly and unnecessary.
Hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) addition has been identified by the USEPA as an acceptable technology for radium removal in groundwater supplies. HMO addition is a radium removal technology that is particularly suited for small and medium-sized systems. This process relies on the natural affinity of radium to adsorb onto manganese oxides. HMO addition involves the preparation and controlled dosage of a pre-formed manganese oxide solution to raw water prior to filtration. Radium is adsorbed on the surface of the added HMO particles, which are subsequently filtered.
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City of Channahon
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